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صفحه نخست /Chemotype variations among ...
عنوان
Chemotype variations among lichen ecotypes of Umbilicaria aprina as revealed by LC-ESI-MS/MS: a survey of antioxidant phenolics
نوع پژوهش مقاله چاپ‌شده
کلیدواژه‌ها
Umbilicaria aprina . Umbilicariaceae . Phytochemical profile . Phenolic . LC-ESI-MS/MS . Depsides . Ecological factors . Slope aspect
چکیده
In the present study, we characterized the phytochemical properties, which were specifically associated with phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in six distinct ecotypes of Umbilicaria aprina Nyl. from Iran (including Kivarestan, Mishan, Takht-e Nader, Tochal, Sabalan, and Sahand) to detect diversities within the species. Total phenolic concentration (TPC) and radical scavenging capacities of U. aprina ecotypes were evaluated. Moreover, qualitative differences between chemical profiles were surveyed using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Relatively moderate TPCs (Kivarestan = 36.12 ± 2.1, Mishan = 41.59 ± 2.2, Takht-e Nader = 31.85 ± 1.3, Tochal = 37.55 ± 2.3, Sabalan = 28.91 ± 2.5, and Sahand = 31.59 ± 2.2) were observed for ecotypes, but a very strong correlation (r = −0/842) was obtained between TPCs and IC50 values. Based on the results of LC-ESI-MS/MS, the following chemical substances were identified: orsellinic acid (1), lecanoric acid (2), evernic acid (3), gyrophoric acid (4), umbilicaric acid (5), hiascic acid (6), stictic acid (7) methyl hiascic acid (8), and an unknown substance (9). The MS/MS fragmentation scheme for each substance was determined and proposed. Wide discrepancies were observed in the chemical profiles of lichen ecotypes, which may corroborate the influence of ecological locality conditions, for example, altitude and slope aspects on secondary metabolism of lichen species U. aprina. The northfacing and east-facing ecotypes (Sabalan and Mishan, respectively) lacked depsidones (stictic acid) mainly because they receive the least direct radiation. Mishan ecotype, as the only east-facing ecotype, showed the most different chemical profile.
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